Effects of Two Instructional Methods on Self-Efficacy, Attitude to and Performance in Economics among Selected Secondary School Students in Abuja, Nigeria
The self-efficacy, attitude to and performance of senior secondary students in Nigeria in Economics has declined in recent times. This is apparently attributed to failure of teachers to adopt appropriate teaching methods in teaching the subject. This study was carried out in Abuja, Nigeria to investigate the effects of two instructional methods – cooperative learning and inquiry-based learning on self-efficacy, attitude to and performance of students in Economics. The sample comprised 275 senior secondary school students (134 male and 141 female) who were selected by multi-stage sampling technique. Five research questions and five research hypotheses were raised for the study. Quasi experimental pre-test and post-test control group design was utilized for the research. The research instruments used for the study were Numerical Aptitude Test (NAT), Economics Achievement Test (EAT), Economics Attitude Scale (EAS) and Self-efficacy Questionnaire (SEQ). The test-retest reliability coefficient of 0.82 and 0.78 respectively was obtained for the two forms of the achievement tests at four weeks interval. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Multiple Regression Analysis statistical methods were used to analyse the data gathered. The study findings show that there is a significant difference in the post-test in scores in economics among participants exposed to the three experimental conditions. Cooperative learning was more effective in students’ performance in economics. There is a significant difference in the post-test scores on self-efficacy due to the intervention strategies. Participants exposed to inquiry-based learning have higher scores in post self-efficacy more than those exposed to the cooperative learning and control. There is a significant difference in the post-test scores on attitude to learning economics among the experimental groups. Inquiry-based learning and cooperative learning successfully improved the participants’ attitude to learning economics than those in the control. There is a significant linear relationship between economics performance test scores and a set of dependant variables (attitude to economics and self-efficacy). Both self-efficacy and attitude to learning economics accounted for a significant variation in students’ performance in economics. Based on the findings, some recommendations were proffered one of which is the need to engage students in the teaching and learning process in order to help them increase their understanding of the subject.