An assessment of the impact of municipal effluent waste deposal on Umguza river water quality: A case of Bulawayo city, Zimbabwe.
Human health depends on reliable access to safe drinking water, but in many developing countries there are problems of accessing it. This is mainly attributed to water pollution, poor sewage discharge and industrial waste effluent discharge into rivers by the Municipal of Bulawayo and Industrial activities water effluent discharge in Zimbabwe’s the second largest capital city. This study was carried out to assess the physico-chemical quality of Umguza River water, by testing the level of pollutants from the Municipal effluent waste disposal into the river. The study period was from August 2014 to December 2014. Water samples were collected from three points on the river downstream before contamination from Municipal effluent waste disposal, near point of discharge then downstream Umguza River. A total of 15 samples on 3 sites for 5 months were collected and each was analysed for 7 parameters(Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Permanganent Value, Nitrates,Phosphates and Turbidity) .The sites are upstream of Umguza River (Air Road Bridge in Woodvile), Lower Umguza Dam after Municipal discharge and downstream at Vic Falls Road Bridge. Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs) at EMA laboratory were followed for analysis of these parameters. The results suggest that the water in the river is polluted by and not safe to drink and showed that the pollution is indeed from the Municipal disposal into Umguza River.