Effects of Analogy, Advance Organiser and Elaborative Interrogation on Achievement and Attitude to Chemistry among Students in Abia State, Nigeria
The field of Chemistry is vital to human existence as many of its theories and concepts can be applied in diverse areas of human endeavour. However the dwindling achievement and poor attitude of secondary school students in Nigeria to Chemistry are of concern to stake holders. These negative attitudes and poor achievement in Chemistry may partly be due to teachers’ method of instructional delivery. This study investigated the effects of Analogy, Advance Organiser and Elaborative Interrogation in improving achievement and attitude to Chemistry among secondary school students in Abia state, Nigeria. Theories of meaningful learning, levels of processing and social learning guided the study which utilised quasi experimental pre-test post-test control group research design. The population comprised of all Senior Secondary School two (S.S.II) Chemistry students in Abia state. Multistage sampling process was used to select 153 S.S II students from four intact classes in four co-educational secondary schools. Students in each of the three schools were exposed to one of the three treatment conditions: Analogy, Advance Organiser and Elaborative Interrogation Instructional Packages while those in the fourth school were the control group and were taught with the traditional Teacher Directed Conventional Instructional Package. Two instruments: Learner’s Achievement Test in Chemistry (LATC) and Learner’s Attitude Questionnaire in Chemistry (LAQC) were used to obtain pre-test and post-test data for the study which lasted nine weeks. Six hypotheses were tested and the data collected were analysed at .05 level of significance using ANCOVA. Four of the six hypotheses formulated were accepted while two were rejected. Results showed that of the three treatment conditions, Advance Organiser was most effective in improving students’ achievement in Chemistry followed by Elaborative Interrogation and Analogy. However on students’ attitude to Chemistry, the most effective instructional strategy was Analogy followed by Elaborative Interrogation and Advance Organiser. Gender and age did not moderate the treatment effects on students’ achievement and attitude to Chemistry. Overall, the instructional strategies were effective in improving students’ achievement and attitude to Chemistry irrespective of the age and gender of the participants. To change students’ negative attitudes to Chemistry and improve their Chemistry achievement, it was recommended that teachers should use Analogy and Advance Organiser in teaching Chemistry, more so that these instructional strategies are not moderated by age and gender.