Urban and Rural Differences in Creativity Intelligence and Academic Achievement among Selected Primary School Pupils in Lagos State.
The purpose of this research thesis was to compare the performance in creativity, intelligence (scholastic Aptitude) and academic achievement of pupils from urban, suburban and rural settings in Lagos State of Nigeria. Also investigated were differences due to sex in performance of the pupils from the three localities. The research is a 2x3 factorial design - with the two independent variables (a) sex (or gender) and (b) locality (urban suburban and rural); and three dependent variables (a) creativity (b) intelligence (or SAT) and (c) academic achievement. The sample for the study was drawn from six primary schools, two from each of the three localities in Lagos State. A total of 70 primary six pupils (35 males and 35 females) were randomly selected from each locality. This brings to a grand of 210 pupils (105 males and 105 females) who took part in the study. The average age of the pupils was 12 years. The urban sample was drawn from Ikoyi and Ikeja; suburban sample from Ikorodu, and rural sample from Itogazama and Ejinrin, in badagry and Epe Local Government Areas respectively. Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) Figural Form N, consisting of three different activities (by Torrance, 1974); and scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT-1) Obe (1982) were administered to the pupils. The creativity tests were scored for fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration and for total score. The scholastic aptitude test consisting of Numerical - and verbal-aptitude subtests was scored for Numerical - and verbal-aptitude subscores and for total score. The academic achievement test score for each pupil was his/her per centage score obtained in the First School (Primary Leaving Certificate Examination, October 1987, administered by the Ministry of Education, Lagos State of Nigeria. The scores obtained on the three variables creativity, intelligence and academic achievement as explained above were subjected to a 2 x 3 Analysis of Variance per variable. For creativity, the result showed that sex difference and the sex by school location interaction effects were not significant. However, the difference due to locality (or school location) was found to have significant effect on the pupils performance on the creativity test. A follow-up Scheffe-Test showed that significant differences exist between urban and rural on one hand and suburban and rural on the other hand only. The urban sample recorded higher mean scores in all the creativity sub-scores (fluency, flexibility, elaboration and originality) and total creativity than their rural counterparts. The suburban pupils also equally proved superior in all the above scores over their rural counterparts. The result of a 2x3 ANOVA on intelligence (SAT), test scores revealed that the sex difference and the sex by locality interaction effects were not significant. However, the locality has significant effect on the pupils performance on intelligence test. The significant difference were found to exist between urban and suburban, urban and rural. and suburban and rural samples as revealed by Scheffe-Test. The urban sample performed significantly better than both their suburban and rural counterparts in both the total scores as well as in the Numerical and verbal subscores. The suburban sample also outscored the rural sample significantly in both total score as well as in Numerical and verbal subscores. The result of the third 2x3 ANOVA based on academic achievement revealed that locality also had tremendous significant effect on the pupil's performance in this variable. The sex difference and the sex by locality interaction effects proved statistically non-significant as in the two variables. The significant effects were detected by a Scheffe Test to exist between urban and suburban samples as well as between urban and rural samples. Besides 2x3 ANOVA, a series of Pearson Product-Moment correlations (r), 27 in number were analysed. The results of the intercorrelation matrix, for creativity, intelligence and academic achievement computed for the total sample, males and females subsamples in the three localities showed that creativity and intelligence correlated significantly for the total urban sample (0.26), female subsamples (0.511), suburban total sample (0.30), suburban females (0.33); rural total sample (0.36) and males (0.56). However, there was no significant correlation between intelligence and creativity for the urban males (0.05), suburban males (0.27), and rural females (0.13). There was no significant correlations between creativity and academic achievement in all the urban and rural samples both for total, males and females and for suburban males; except for the suburban total, and suburban females. (See Chapter iv for details). As was expected, intelligence and academic achievement showed a high significant correlation in all the localities both for total, male and female samples. Details of the correlation coefficients are contained in chapter iv. The statistical results as contained in correlation coefficients are contained in chapter iv. The statistical results as explained above led to the rejection and acceptance of a number of the stated null-hypotheses. These are summarised in chapter v. The results overall showed that the urban samples on the average performed significantly better than both their rural and suburban counterparts. The suburban samples also proved superior over the rural sample. This finding is confirmed in the 2x3 ANOVA, where locality difference proved significant for all the three variables under study. The writer presented some explanations to account for this finding. Further, the implications of the results for education were also presented. Details of these will be found in the main text.