Impact of HIV/AIDS on Households Income and Food Expenditure in Lagos State, Nigeria
The HIV/AIDS pandemic is a global crisis threatening the survival of families’ especially poor households in Sub Sahara Africa Countries. HIV mostly affects the economically active members (ages 18-49 years) of the household causing morbidity and mortality to this cohort groups. The burden of financing HIV/AIDS related illness reduces expenditures for other basic needs of the households, thereby threatening relative labour productivities, food production and consumption by PLWHAs and other household members. In this regard, quite a number of studies have exploit the impact of HIV/AIDS on household income and food security in selected states of Southern and Eastern nations of Africa, with lesser empirical studies focusing on West Africa countries especially in Nigeria. This study, therefore, analyzes the demographic characteristics of PLWHAs; ascertain the socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS on household’s income and food expenditure in Lagos State, Nigeria. The theoretical underpinning and framework are draws from theories which revolve around the household theory of production and Grossman-Wagstaff theory of health production. Primary data which cut across 10 LGAs of Lagos State, and obtained from November 2014 to January 2015 is utilized for the study. Out of a target population of 223,425 PLWHAs in the State, a sample size of 1500 respondents are drawn from ten treatment centres in each LGAs. In all, 150 respondents are selected from each of the ten treatment centres using convenient sampling technique. An average of 60 per cent response rate is recorded. Data obtained from the structured questionnaire (Household Income Dietary Scale, HIDS) is analysed through descriptive and econometric technique (logistic regression analysis). Findings from the descriptive statistics show that more females - 581 (65%) - than males - 310 (35) are found in the sampled treatment centres. The results also show that 56.6 per cent of affected households experience income decline due to health care related expenditures while 43.6 per cent do not. Similarly, 54.9 per cent of affected households experience food expenditure decline, whereas 45.1 per cent do not. The result of the logistic regression shows that of all the socioeconomic and demographic variables employed in the income model, age group 18-23 years (Odd ratios: 5.39), unemployed individuals (Odd ratios: 2.09), productivity loss (Odd ratio: 4.237) and households that incur health care expenditures (Odd ratio: 5.87) are most likely to experience income decline than other sub-categories. Furthermore, the findings from the food expenditure outcome advance that the odd of food expenditure decline is reduced by a factor of 0.42 per cent for households that incur health care expenditures against households that do not. Going by the results, it is therefore recommended that policy intervention that will assist affected households to maintain regular income should be introduced. This should include skills empowerment and cash transfer programmes that can provide financial protection for affected households.